Notes from: A Handbook for Action Research

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  • Care (as Collaboration)
  • Respect (as symmetric nonviolent Connection)
  • Social Justice (as Voice)
  • Human development, both of these served and those serving
  • Create a culture inquiry of  in practice settings


  • Action research is the study of a social situation carried out by those involved in that situation in order to improve BOTH their practice and the quality of their understanding.
  • Has practice (action) as the focus of learning within the situational context as experienced by all stake holders, especially by practitioners and those being served (understandable through reflection, dialogue, participation)
  • Practical, democratic participation (collaborative), inquiry, learning, development and change (in order to do better at practices of Care, Respect, and Justice)
  • Occurs within the uncertainty inherent within social complexity
  • Focuses on organizational, educational, community, service-user situations and contexts
  • Has a generative or positive bias (PERMA)
  • Addresses and attempts to ameliorate the power and fear inherent in hierarchical relationships
  • Shifts power for improvement to those in the situation
  • Develops understanding  as a by-product of practical improvement of real situations


  • Reflection on action (on personal experiences of practice)
  • Democratic participation in critical reflection (of all Stakeholders)
  • Expertise (of all participants, especially those being served)
  • Alternates continuously between action (practice) and inquiry (innovative thinking) // A developmental spiral of practical decision-making and evaluative reflection
  • A3 thinking
  • Sofi
  • Innovation conversations